JALT2013 Featured Speaker articles

Page No.: 
Charles Browne, Christine Pearson Casanave, Crayton Walker, Curtis Kelly, Daniela Papi, David Harrington, Elka Todeva, Grant Trew, and Scott Thornbury


The New General Service List: Celebrating 60 years of vocabulary learning

Charles Browne, Meiji Gakuin University


This article introduces a new list of important high frequency vocabulary words for second language learners of English. Using many of the same principles employed by Michael West in the development of the original General Service List (GSL) published in 1953, the New General Service List (NGSL) was created with full access to the 1.6 billion-word Cambridge English Corpus (CEC). Based on a more contemporary corpus of English, the NGSL was generated from a carefully selected 273 million-word subsection of the CEC (more that 100 times larger than the pre-computer era 2.5 million-word corpus used to generate the initial word lists for the GSL), the NGSL offers higher coverage than the original GSL (90% vs. 84%) with fewer words (about 2800 lemmas vs. 3600). This brief introduction to the NGSL outlines the basic steps in its creation as well as providing a link to a dedicated website where the public-domain list can be both downloaded and discussed.

本論では第2言語としての英語学習者のために、重要で使用頻度が高い語彙の新しいリストを紹介する。1953年に出版された初代General Service List (GSL)開発の際にMichael Westによって採用された同じ原理の多くを使用しながら、16億語にも及ぶCambridge English Corpus (CEC)を参考にNGSLが作られた。より現代向きの英語のコーパスに基づき、厳選された2億7千3百万のCECの単語リストからNGSLが作られた。(コンピュータ以前の時代に最初のGSL作成に用いられた2千5百万語のコーパスの100倍以上である。)初代GSLと比べ、より少ない見出し語(旧3,600語に対し2,800語)で、より高いカバー率(旧84%に対し90%)を提供している。この簡単なNGSL入門では、NGSL作成における基本行程の概要を述べると共に、公有リストのダウンロードおよび議論が可能な専用ウェブサイトへのリンクを紹介する。


Ecology of effort: Contexts underlying motivation

Christine Pearson Casanave, CUE SIG


This workshop explores the notion of "ecology of effort" and its connection to more traditional concepts of motivation and attitude. By ecology of effort I mean the many interrelated environmental, physical-neurobiological, and emotional influences on a person's desire to invest effort, or not, in challenging long-term tasks, such as studying a second language or preparing academic papers. To start, I'll offer several anecdotes, then discuss the concept of ecology in educational linguistics (Kramsch, 2002; van Lier,2004 Kramsch), the brain-mind-body-emotion connection (Damasio, 1999), and my extension of the concept of ecology to mind, body, and emotion. Next, workshop participants will discuss examples of ecological influences on their own and their students' efforts in language study (or other intellectual projects). Finally, we will look at some typical items from motivation and attitude questionnaires to ask what might be missing and how we might further study the ecology of effort in language research.

このワークショップでは、“ecology of effort”の概念と、 従来からの動機づけや態度の概念との関係を検討する。私が意味するecology of effortとは、第2言語学習や学術論文の準備のような長期的タスクに挑む努力をする(あるいは、しない)という各自の願望に対して多くの相互関係を持つ、環境的、身体的・神経生物学的、感情的影響のことである。まず、いくつかの逸話を示した後、教育言語学におけるecologyの概念について、また、脳・心・身体・感情の関連性について論じ、ecologyの概念を心・身体・感情へと拡張する。次に、ワークショップ参加者に、自分自身や学生たちの言語学習(あるいは他の知的プロジェクト)における努力への、ecology的な影響の例を話し合ってもらう。最後に、言語研究におけるecology of effortをこれから研究していく上で、 何が欠けているか、そして何を付け加えられるかを問うために、動機づけと態度に関するアンケートから、いくつかの代表的な項目について検討する。


Collocation and phraseology in the classroom

Crayton Walker, University of Birmingham


EFL/ESL teachers are often encouraged to regard collocations as arbitrary groupings of words. It is often argued that they exist in the language just like idioms and phrasal verbs exist. The only thing the teacher can do is to make his or her learners aware of collocations, encourage them to read more and keep lists of the collocations they encounter together with their meanings. My research shows that there are a number of factors, such as the precise meaning of a particular word, or the way that we use a word figuratively, which influence our choice of collocates. There are often subtle differences which are reflected in their collocational behaviour. The research shows that, contrary to current EFL/ESL methodology, many aspects of collocation can be, and perhaps should be, explained. 



Adult Learners and a Different Way of Teaching

Curtis Kelly, Nova Southeastern University


As predicted, Japanese adults are returning to school in ever increasing numbers.  Since English is one of their favorite subjects, you might get a few of them in your university, conversation school, or community center classes.  Thse adults might be ready to study, but are you ready to teach them? Research has found that traditional teaching methods do not work well with adults because their learning styles are so different.  Adults are often characterized as being non-dependent learners, who prefer self-directed learning methods such as personalized projects, discussion activities, and reflective learning tasks.  They are motivated more by personal payoff than external factors like grades. Because of these differences, Malcolm Knowles (1980) has developed a different pedagogy for them called Andragogy.

以前からの予想通り、大人になってから学び直す日本人が益々増えている。英語は人気科目の1つなので、大学や語学学校、カルチャーセンターにもそんな学生が来るだろう。これらの成人学生たちは勉強の準備ができている。しかし教える側の受け入れ準備はどうだろうか。研究によると、伝統的な語学教授法は、成人学生の学習スタイルとはあまりにも違っているので、成人学生にはあまり効果がない。成人学生は、個人向け学習課題、ディスカッション、内省的学習タスクなどの自律学習を好む特徴があり、成績などの外的要因よりも個人的な成果によって動機づけられる。このような違いから、Malcolm Knowles (1980)は、成人教育学と呼ばれる独特の教授法を開発した。


Interview with Daniela Papi—GILE SIG

Jennier Roloff Rothman


Five elements of a learning conducive environment

David Harrington, Language Solutions Japan


When something approaching the sum total of all human knowledge and the answer to nearly every question imaginable is literally at our fingertips with the single click of a computer button why should students still physically attend classes? What does the classroom experience provide that cannot be obtained elsewhere with far greater convenience and at less expense? The answer lies in the human interaction that constitutes that classroom experience. The potential for successful learning is multiplied many times over when certain basic psychological needs such as belonging and connecting are satisfied within the safe confines of the classroom. The social nature of language and the primacy of spoken communication over reading and writing make that live interaction all the more important in our language classrooms. This workshop will focus on the changing role and importance of the classroom experience in learning and on very practical ways to improve the classroom experience for both student and teacher.



Grammaring: a personal odyssey perspective

Elka Todeva, SIT Graduate Institute


In the spirit of experiential learning, workshop participants will go grammaring with several core features and structures in English: tenses, articles, the passive voice, and conditionals. Processing these experiences, participants will be able to identify key features of grammaring as a type of language teaching that artfully combines genuine communication with engaging and intellectually stimulating focus-on-form, thus expediting and facilitating learning. The workshop also offers an exploration of the history, scope, and evolution of the concept of grammaring which is full of untapped potential. The aim is for participants to see grammaring as a teaching philosophy where one puts a premium on learner agency and learner engagement. Grammar should not be perceived as a baffling system of structures and rules, but rather as a liberating force. This force frees the students from their dependence on context and moves them beyond the commonly witnessed learning plateauing that comes with insufficient attention to form.



TOEIC® for lower levels: Challenges and solutions

Grant Trew by Oxford University Press


The TOEIC® can be extremely challenging for lower-level learners. Not only for the students who struggle to get the scores they need, but also for teachers who aim to help them.

This workshop will look at the specific challenges these learners face and highlight the major problems inherent in the majority of current preparation materials. Finally it will present practical techniques for teachers to help lower-level students overcome these challenges and get the scores they need.