A study under the different learning environments for English listening tasks: Comparison of PC-equipped classroom and regular classroom
吉田 信介, 関西大学;
吉田 晴世, 大阪教育大学
In this paper, we attempted to investigate the following issues: (a) how different learning environments may cause different interactions in classroom; (b) how such differences may affect learners’ attitudes towards listening tasks and test results. We compared the results of tests and questionnaires in two types of learning environments of PC-equipped classroom and regular classroom.
Participants were all Japanese undergraduate university students majoring in English. The experimental group (PC-group) consisted of 116 participants (PCL: lower level group, 51; PCH: higher level group 65), while the control group (regular classroom-group) consisted of 117 participants (RGL: lower level group, 56; RGH: higher level group 61). Materials used in the present study were several series of VOA Special English news. The participants in the PC-group were allowed to listen to the materials recurrently using an application on the individual PC. The application enabled real-time feedback of their performances and their individual ranks in the classroom for their tasks. By contrast, the participants in the regular classroom-group had recurrent but teacher-controlled chances to listen to the same materials and were given overall feedback for their performances. We conducted two types of the same paper tests and questionnaires in both the pre and post phases of this research project. ANOVA, multiple comparison Scheffe and Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni adjustment were used for analysis.
As for the fill-in-the-blank tests, the ANOVA repeated Measure detected a significant difference between the pre and post test scores (F (1,231) = 184.77, p = .01), and a significant interaction between two groups (F (1,231) = 45.00, p = .01). The average score of the PC-group was significantly higher than that of the regular classroom-group. As for the TOEIC listening tests, the ANOVA repeated Measure detected a significant difference between pre and post test scores (F (1,231) = 52.84, p = .01), but no significant interaction between two groups. The significant interaction between two groups was detected only for the fill-in-the-blank tests. This means that learning environment with PCs may have impact on learners’ attitudes and improved results of listening tasks at perception level. In addition, the ANOVA repeated Measure among four groups (PCL, PCH, RGL, RGH) detected a significant difference between the pre and post test scores: the fill-in-the-blank tests (F(3,229)＝15.231, p=.01), the TOEIC listening tests (F(3,229)＝18.10, p=.01). Multiple comparison Scheffe revealed the significant interactions among following groups: the fill-in-the-blank tests :PCH and RGL, RGL and PC/RG H; the TOEIC listening tests: PCL and RG/PC H, PCH and RG/PC L, RGL and RG/PC H, RGH and RG/PC L. This means that learning environment with PCs may have influence on listening performance at perception level (rather shallow cognitive processing level) but not at comprehension level (rather deep cognitive processing level).
Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni adjustment detected significant differences on the pre and post questionnaires as follows: two items for the PC-group and eight items for the regular classroom-group. This means that learners’ awareness of their listening skills and learning strategies did not affect the results of the tests. In other words, it was different learning environments that caused differences in interactions in the classroom. In conclusion, learning environment may have affected learners’ learning attitudes. Focusing on less numbers of listening skills and learning strategies in the PC-equipped classroom had a positive impact on the scores of the listening perception test. The learning environment with PCs might have facilitated learner autonomy.