酒井英樹 Hideki Sakai, 信州大学 Shinshu University; 和田順一 Junichi Wada, 清泉女学院大学 Seisen Jogakuin College
2012年から実施される中学校学習指導要領（文部科学省, 2008）によれば、まとまりのある英語に焦点をあてて指導することが明記されている。まとまりのある英語とは、「一つのテーマに沿って話されたものや内容に一貫性のあるものなどを示している。例えば、スピーチや機内アナウンス、天気予報などが挙げられる。」(p. 12) と説明されている。そこで、平成18年度版中学校英語教科書にどのようなまとまりのある英語が扱われているのかを調べた。分析の結果、比較的多様なジャンル・テキストタイプが用いられていることがわかった。また、社会的行為や目的が明確でない基本的なジャンル・テキストタイプも見られた。頻度の高いジャンル・テキストタイプは、会話、スピーチ、自己紹介、放送、散文、電子メール、手紙、ウェブサイトであった。6社の教科書すべてで扱われているジャンル・テキストタイプは少なかった。これらの分析結果に基づき、教育的示唆を行った。
The purpose of this study is to obtain information about EFL teaching materials used in Japanese junior high schools by analyzing textbooks in terms of genre/text types, one aspect of discourse organization. This study was motivated by the growing recognition of the importance of teaching discourse organization. For example, the new Course of Study (Monbukagakusho, i.e., the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, 2008) is now emphasizing discourse organization. Furthermore, Grabe and Stoller (2002) suggested that it is necessary to teach discourse organization because of inherent differences in L1 and L2 reading processes and reading situations. They also pointed out that features of discourse organization and social expectations in a particular genre may differ among cultures and thus argued that raising L2 learners’ awareness about discourse organization is important. Moreover, in light of these points, it is clear that an analysis of textbooks used as the main materials for EFL education in junior high schools will be beneficial for junior high school EFL teachers. As far as we know, no previous studies have analyzed such textbooks in terms of genre/text types.
In this study, we posited two research questions as follows: (a) What types of genre/text types are utilized in junior high school EFL textbooks? and (b) How often does each genre/text type appear? We analyzed 18 government-authorized EFL textbooks (six titles, each consisting of three books for three grades).
To analyze the textbooks, we proceeded as follows:
We made a basic list of genre/text types based on previous studies.
We each coded two textbooks independently.
We made a list of genre/text types through actual coding of those textbooks.
We each coded one book using that list of genre/text types. Our agreement reached 97.6%.
One or the other of us coded all the other books.
We discussed the codes and made final decisions about coding.
The results show that a variety of genre/text types was used in the textbooks, including both more basic genre/text types that have less clear communicative purposes or do not show clear social behaviors, and also genre/text types that can easily and definitely be regarded as a genre. Among the genre/text types, certain types such as conversations, speeches, self-introductions, and broadcasting were frequently used for the oral modes of communication whereas stories, emails, letters, and websites were the more frequent types for the written modes of communication. The range of genre/text types was not very different among the textbooks, but the specific types covered were.
On the basis of the findings, we discuss the pedagogical implications. First, taking into consideration that both more basic genre/text types as well as genre/text types with clearer communicative functions were identified, teachers can arrange the texts from basic to more complex genre/text types throughout the 3 years of EFL instruction in junior high school. Second, because the specific genre/text types covered were different among textbooks, teachers need to know which genre/text types appear in the textbooks they use. If necessary, then, teachers can create additional materials to supplement the textbooks when teaching a certain genre/text type. Lastly, teachers must be careful about the terms for describing genre/text types because those used in the textbooks themselves are very often ambiguous.