Selected Paper: Developing Likert-Scale Questionnaires

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Tomoko Nemoto, Temple University, Japan Campus; David Beglar, Temple University, Japan Campus

Likert-scale questionnaires are the most commonly used type of instrument for measuring affective variables such as motivation and self-efficacy, given that they allow researchers to gather large amounts of data with relative ease. However, despite their widespread use, there is relatively little information in the second language literature concerning the development and analysis of Likert-scale questionnaires. The purpose of this paper is to present a set of five guidelines for constructing Likert-scale instruments: understanding the construct, developing items, determining the outcome space, specifying the measurement model, and gathering feedback and piloting the questionnaire. The use of these guidelines can lead to the development of Likert-scale questionnaires that are more likely to yield reliable data that lead to valid interpretations.